Sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait
Hemoglobin diseases are a group of blood disorders passed down through families in which there is an abnormal production or structure of the hemoglobin protein.
These hemoglobinopathies are inherited single gene disorders. Hemoglobinopathies affect the red blood cells' ability to carry oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body. An example of hemoglobin disease is sickle cell anemia.
There are over 600 hemoglobin diseases that have been medically defined by the American College of Medical Genetics. The Mississippi Hemoglobinopathy Surveillance Registry reports the following diseases:
Sickle cell anemia is one of the most frequently occurring genetic disorders that affect the red blood cells. Sickle cell anemia mostly affects people of African descent but the disease can also affect people of Hispanic, Arabic, Indian or Mediterranean descent. Sickle cell anemia affects about 90,000 to 100,000 people in the United States, including one in every 500 African-American babies and one in every 36,000 Hispanic babies.
Sickle cell anemia can cause pain, infections and damage to body organs. The pain symptoms of sickle cell anemia appear during a period called a crisis. A crisis can last from a few hours to a week in length. Other symptoms of sickle cell anemia include fever; pain in hands, feet and joints; shortness of breath; pneumonia-like symptoms; dizziness; headache; sores on the legs and an enlarged spleen or liver. All babies born in Mississippi are tested for hemoglobin disease and trait. Babies with hemoglobin disease are referred to medical specialty care soon after birth for treatment.
Sickle cell trait is not a disease. Having a trait means a person has inherited the sickle cell gene from only one parent. Sickle cell trait affects 1 in 12 African-Americans in the United States. People with sickle cell trait usually do not have any symptoms and live a normal life. Approximately 3 million people living in the United States have sickle cell trait and many are unaware of their status.
Most people with sickle cell trait do not have any health effects because they have some normal A hemoglobin. However, some people with sickle cell trait can have health conditions that are similar to a crisis of sickle cell anemia. These episodes can happen when a person with sickle cell trait engages in strenuous activities or sports that cause the body to work harder than normal. Symptoms of an episode can include shortness of breath, coldness in the hands and feet, pale skin, chest pain and headaches. If you have sickle cell trait you may be at risk of having a child with sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease.
You will not know if you have sickle cell trait unless you have a blood test. Ideally you and your partner should ask for a blood test before you plan to have a child if you do not know your status. If you have been told by a healthcare provider that you have sickle cell trait there is a chance you could pass the abnormal gene to your baby.
|What You Should Know About Sickle Cell Disease||http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/sicklecell/documents/SCD%20factsheet_What%20is%20SCD.pdf|
|Sickle Cell Disease and Pregnancy||http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/sicklecell/documents/SCD%20factsheet_SCD%20%20Pregnancy.pdf|
|5 Tips to Help Prevent Infection||http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/sicklecell/documents/tipsheets_5.pdf|
|Fact Sheet for Student-Athletes||http://web1.ncaa.org/web_files/health_safety/SickleCellTraitforSA.pdf|
|Fact Sheet for Coaches||http://web1.ncaa.org/web_files/health_safety/SickleCellTraitforCoaches.pdf|
|St. Jude Children's Research Hospital||http://www.stjude.org/stjude/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=df1dbfe82e118010VgnVCM1000000e2015acRCRD|
|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention||http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/sicklecell|
|Sickle Cell Disease Association of America||https://www.sicklecelldisease.org/|
|MSDH Newborn Screening: Genetic Counseling Questions & Answers||http://msdh.ms.gov/msdhsite/index.cfm/41,361,101,html|
|Mississippi Sickle Cell Foundation||http://www.mssicklecellfoundation.org|
|Cure Sickle Cell Foundation||http://www.curesicklecell.org|
|Video: The Student Athlete with Sickle Cell Trait||http://s3.amazonaws.com/ncaa/web_video/health_and_safety/sickle_cell/sickleCell.html|
Find this page at http://msdh.ms.gov/msdhsite/index.cfm/index.cfm